Hybrid Warfare: Strategies and Counterstrategies in the India-Pakistan Rivalry


  • Natasha Matloob National Defense University
  • Nayab Matloob Institute of Space Technology
  • Sumbal Ishaq National Defense University




Hybrid Threats, Economic Warfare, Grey Zone Conflict, Non-kinetic Means, Pakistan


Hybrid Warfare represents a sophisticated amalgamation of diverse warfare strategies, seamlessly blending both conventional and non-conventional techniques. This nuanced approach encompasses an array of tactics, incorporating elements from fake news to cybercrimes, civil unrest to economic warfare, and diplomacy to separatist movements. Also recognized as asymmetrical or new-generation warfare, its primary objective is not confrontation but to meticulously identify and exploit the fault lines, vulnerabilities, and trigger points within the targeted nation. Pakistan has been subject to hybrid security threats from its historic rival India since the day of independence. The paper sheds light on Indian hybrid warfare against Pakistan which broadly encompasses political and diplomatic support to the separatist movements, targeted campaigns on social media, and hindering the timely completion of CPEC and other developmental projects. Given the intensity of hybrid security threats and their fall-flanged impact on the peace, development, and security of the state, the article has attempted to provide comprehensive policy options for Pakistan to effectively counter the hybrid threats.

Author Biographies

Natasha Matloob, National Defense University

The author is pursuing a Bachelor's in International Relations from NDU. She works as a contributing writer for Friday Times, Diplomatic Insight, and Modern Diplomacy

Nayab Matloob, Institute of Space Technology

The author has completed a Bachelor's in Electrical Engineering from the Institute of Space Technology and currently working as a Content and Community Head at Apprays.

Sumbal Ishaq, National Defense University

The author is pursuing a Bachelors in International Relations from NDU.




How to Cite

Matloob, N., Matloob, N., & Ishaq, S. (2023). Hybrid Warfare: Strategies and Counterstrategies in the India-Pakistan Rivalry. Journal of Peace and Diplomacy, 4(1), 78–99. https://doi.org/10.59111/JPD.004.01.043